IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 14941: Calciprotein Particles Cause Physiologically Significant Pro-Inflammatory Response in Endothelial Cells and Systemic Circulation (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Calciprotein particles (CPPs) represent an inherent mineral buffering system responsible for the scavenging of excessive Ca2+ and PO43− ions in order to prevent extraskeletal calcification, although contributing to the development of endothelial dysfunction during the circulation in the bloodstream. Here, we performed label-free proteomic profiling to identify the functional consequences of CPP internalisation by endothelial cells (ECs) and found molecular signatures of significant disturbances in mitochondrial and lysosomal physiology, including oxidative stress, vacuolar acidification, accelerated proteolysis, Ca2+ cytosolic elevation, and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation. Incubation of intact ECs with conditioned medium from CPP-treated ECs caused their pro-inflammatory activation manifested by vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) upregulation and elevated release of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/ C-C motif ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2). Among the blood cells, monocytes were exclusively responsible for CPP internalisation. As compared to the co-incubation of donor blood with CPPs in the flow culture system, intravenous administration of CPPs to Wistar rats caused a considerably higher production of chemokines, indicating the major role of monocytes in CPP-triggered inflammation. Upregulation of sICAM-1 and IL-8 also suggested a notable contribution of endothelial dysfunction to systemic inflammatory response after CPP injections. Collectively, our results demonstrate the pathophysiological significance of CPPs and highlight the need for the development of anti-CPP therapies.