IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 14971: Genetic Spectrum of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia in the Malaysian Community: Identification of Pathogenic Gene Variants Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is caused by mutations in lipid metabolism genes, predominantly in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) and LDL receptor adaptor protein 1 (LDLRAP1). The prevalence of genetically confirmed FH and the detection rate of pathogenic variants (PV) amongst clinically diagnosed patients is not well established. Targeted next-generation sequencing of LDLR, APOB, PCSK9 and LDLRAP1 was performed on 372 clinically diagnosed Malaysian FH subjects. Out of 361 variants identified, 40 of them were PV (18 = LDLR, 15 = APOB, 5 = PCSK9 and 2 = LDLRAP1). The majority of the PV were LDLR and APOB, where the frequency of both PV were almost similar. About 39% of clinically diagnosed FH have PV in PCSK9 alone and two novel variants of PCSK9 were identified in this study, which have not been described in Malaysia and globally. The prevalence of genetically confirmed potential FH in the community was 1:427, with a detection rate of PV at 0.2% (12/5130). About one-fourth of clinically diagnosed FH in the Malaysian community can be genetically confirmed. The detection rate of genetic confirmation is similar between potential and possible FH groups, suggesting a need for genetic confirmation in index cases from both groups. Clinical and genetic confirmation of FH index cases in the community may enhance the early detection of affected family members through family cascade screening.