IJMS, Vol. 23, Pages 15004: A Central Contribution of TG2 Activity to the Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Caffeic Acid in K562 Cells of Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Caffeic acid (CA) has shown antitumor activity in numerous solid and blood cancers. We have recently reported that CA is active in reducing proliferation and triggering apoptosis in both Imatinib-sensitive and resistant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) cells. Tissue transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) enzyme is involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis of numerous types of cancer. However, its activity has different effects depending on the type of tumor. This work investigated the possible involvement of TG2 activation in the triggering of CA-dependent anticancer effects on the K562 cell line, which was studied as a model of CML. CA-dependent changes in TG2 activity were compared with the effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis. The use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant molecule, suggested that the antiproliferative effect of CA was due to the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). The use of a TG2 inhibitor showed that TG2 activity was responsible for the increase in ROS generated by CA and reduced both caspase activation and triggering of CA-dependent apoptosis. The knocking-down of TGM2 transcripts confirmed the crucial involvement of TG2 activation in CML cell death. In conclusion, the data reported, in addition to ascertaining the important role of TG2 activation in the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanism of CA allowed us to hypothesize a possible therapeutic utility of the molecules capable of triggering the activation pathways of TG2 in the treatment of CML.