With the depletion of shallow metal mineral resources, deep mining has become more common. In the process of deep mining, heat hazards in mines seriously threaten the health of personnel and the safety of mining operations. According to the flow and low-temperature characteristics of abundant water in Maoping Lead Zinc Mine, this paper proposes the direct use of the low-temperature water inflow of the mine as the cold source by which to conduct the heat exchange with a single spiral-tube heat exchanger for mine cooling. An experimental platform was built for the cooling system to allow us to explore the mechanism of the influence of the inlet air volume and air temperature and the inlet water temperature and flow on the cooling effect of the single spiral-tube heat exchanger. It was found that with the increase in the inlet air volume and inlet water temperature, the cooling efficiency of the heat exchanger decreased, while with the increase in the inlet air temperature, the cooling efficiency of the heat exchanger increased. Within the experimental range, 127.2 m3/h was found to be the optimum inlet air volume, and 33.0 °C was the most appropriate inlet air temperature; the water temperature of Maoping Coal Mine is about 20 °C throughout the year, and the industrial test site can reduce the wind temperature of 31.5 °C to 23.9 °C. The inlet water flow is positively related to the cooling effect. With the increase in the water flow, the outlet temperature of the air flow at each working point was continuously reduced, and the cooling effect of the heat exchanger was improved. The moisture content of the inlet air flow can be reduced by increasing the low-temperature inlet water flow. Through experiments, the feasibility of the cooling system that directly uses the mine’s low-temperature water as the cold source was verified. A multiple linear regression analysis equation for the cooling system model is proposed, which provides a reference for formulating effective measures to prevent and control heat hazards in mines.