The Dendrobium officinale flower is a non-medicinal part of the plant, rich in a variety of nutrients and bioactive ingredients. The purpose of this article was to explore the preparation conditions of anthocyanins (ACNs) from the D. officinale flower. Subsequently, its anti-aging effects were evaluated with Caenorhabditis elegans. Results showed that the ACNs had antioxidant activities on scavenging free radicals (DPPH· and ABTS+·), and the clearance rate was positively correlated with the dose. Additionally, ACNs significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in C. elegans, which was 2.068-fold higher than that of the control. Treatment with ACNs at 150 μL extended the lifespan of C. elegans by 56.25%, and treatment with ACNs at 50 μL promoted fecundity in C. elegans. Finally, the protective effect of ACNs enhanced stress resistance, thereby increasing the survival numbers of C. elegans, which provided insights for the development and practical application of functional products.