Bioactive compounds from olive mill pomace (OMP) were extracted through a two-step solid-liquid extraction procedure considering four factors at five levels of a central composite rotatable response surface design. The influence of the process variables time of the primary extraction (2.0–4.0 h), solvent-to-sample ratio during the primary extraction (5.0–10.0 mL/g), time of the secondary extraction (1.0–2.0 h), and the solvent-to-sample ratio during the secondary extraction (3.0–5.0 mL/g) were examined. The content of bioactive compounds was determined spectrophotometrically, and the individual phenolic compounds were evaluated by reserved-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The Derringer’s function was used to optimize the extraction process, and the best conditions were found to be 3.2 h for the primary extraction, 10.0 mL/g for the solvent-to-sample ratio and 1.3 h for the secondary extraction associated with a solvent-to-sample ratio of 3.0 mL/g, obtaining a total phenolic content of 50.0 (expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (dw). The response surface methodology proved to be a great alternative for reducing the number of tests, allowing the optimization of the extraction of phenolic antioxidants from OMP with a reduced number of experiments, promoting reductions in cost and analysis time.