The ability of the body to maintain homeostasis requires constant communication between the brain and peripheral tissues. Different organs produce signals, often in the form of hormones, which are detected by the hypothalamus. In response, the hypothalamus alters its regulation of bodily processes, which is achieved through its own pathways of hormonal communication. The generation and transmission of the molecules involved in these bi-directional axes can be affected by redox balance. The essential trace element selenium is known to influence numerous physiological processes, including energy homeostasis, through its various redox functions. Selenium must be obtained through the diet and is used to synthesize selenoproteins, a family of proteins with mainly antioxidant functions. Alterations in selenium status have been correlated with homeostatic disturbances in humans and studies with animal models of selenoprotein dysfunction indicate a strong influence on energy balance. The relationship between selenium and energy metabolism is complicated, however, as selenium has been shown to participate in multiple levels of homeostatic communication. This review discusses the role of selenium in the various pathways of communication between the body and the brain that are essential for maintaining homeostasis.