High-performance electrocatalysts are critical to support emerging electrochemical energy storage and conversion technologies. Graphite-derived materials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have been recognized as promising electrocatalysts and electrocatalyst supports for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR). Effective modification/functionalization of graphite-derived materials can promote higher electrocatalytic activity, stability, and durability. In this review, the mechanisms and evaluation parameters for the above-outlined electrochemical reactions are introduced first. Then, we emphasize the preparation methods for graphite-derived materials and modification strategies. We further highlight the importance of the structural changes of modified graphite-derived materials on electrocatalytic activity and stability. Finally, future directions and perspectives towards new and better graphite-derived materials are presented.