The progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and concomitant reduction in contractile strength plays a central role in frailty syndrome. Age-related neuronal impairments are closely associated with sarcopenia in the elderly, which is characterized by severe muscular atrophy that can considerably lessen the overall quality of life at old age. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomic surveys of senescent human skeletal muscles, as well as animal models of sarcopenia, have decisively improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular consequences of muscular atrophy and associated fiber-type shifting during aging. This review outlines the mass spectrometric identification of proteome-wide changes in atrophying skeletal muscles, with a focus on contractile proteins as potential markers of changes in fiber-type distribution patterns. The observed trend of fast-to-slow transitions in individual human skeletal muscles during the aging process is most likely linked to a preferential susceptibility of fast-twitching muscle fibers to muscular atrophy. Studies with senescent animal models, including mostly aged rodent skeletal muscles, have confirmed fiber-type shifting. The proteomic analysis of fast versus slow isoforms of key contractile proteins, such as myosin heavy chains, myosin light chains, actins, troponins and tropomyosins, suggests them as suitable bioanalytical tools of fiber-type transitions during aging.