IJERPH, Vol. 20, Pages 2252: Oral Microbiota—One Habitat or Diverse Niches? A Pilot Study of Sampling and Identification of Oral Bacterial and Fungal Biota in Patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Insulin Pump (International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)
Objective: The oral microbiota is a very complex and dynamic microbial ecosystem. Alterations of its balance can result in oral and systemic diseases. We aimed to characterize the microbiota in particular niches of the oral cavity in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with continuous infusion of insulin with insulin pump (IP). In addition, we aimed to determine optimal sites of oral microbiota sampling in studies of large research groups of patients with DM I. Design: In this pilot study, we sampled the buccal and soft palate mucosa, tongue, palatal and buccal dental surfaces and gingival pockets of adult DM I patients treated with IP. Results: In total, 23 patients were recruited. The oral microbiota was dominated by Streptococus and Neisseria, with a low incidence of cariogenic S. mutans and Lactobacillus, as well as periodontal pathogens such as Prevotella. There were significant differences in overall CFU counts of all strains, Gram-positive, Staphylococci, Streptococci and S. oralis strains between mucosal and dental surface sites. The overall CFU counts of all strains and Gram-positive strains were higher in dental sites vs. mucosal sites (both p < 0.001). CFU counts of S. oralis were significantly higher in dental sites vs. gingival pocket sites (p = 0.013). Candida species were rare. The mucosal sites on the buccae presented lower diversity and bacterial counts. Conclusions: In the study group of adult DM I patients treated with IP, the microbiota in particular niches of the oral cavity was significantly different. Three distinct and optimally appropriate sampling sites for oral microflora were identified: buccal and palatal mucosa, dental surface and gingival pockets. The results of this study may be the basis for further studies of large groups of patients with DM I.