The Aedes aegypti mosquito significantly impacts public health, with vector control remaining the most efficient means of reducing the number of arboviral disease cases. This study screened the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of common edible plant extracts. Piper nigrum L. (black pepper) extract production was optimized using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and validated following regulatory requirements using HPLC-PDA analytical methodology to quantify its major component–piperine. Larvicidal activity was determined for the standardized P. nigrum fruit ethanol extract (LC50 1.1 µg/mL) and piperine standard (LC50 19.0 µg/mL). Furthermore, 9-day residual activity was determined for the extract (4 µg/mL) and piperine (60 µg/mL), with daily piperine quantification. Semi-field trials of solid extract formulations demonstrated 24-day activity against Ae. aegypti larvae. Thus, the standardized P. nigrum extract emerges as a potential candidate for insecticide development to control the arboviral vector.