Angiogenesis is a significant pathogenic characteristic of diabetic microangiopathy. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are considerably elevated in diabetic tissues and can affect vascular endothelial cell shape and function. Regulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling pathway is a critical mechanism in the regulation of angiogenesis, and VEGFR2 activity can be modified by post-translational changes. However, little research has been conducted on the control of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-mediated VEGFR2 alterations. The current study investigated this using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in conjunction with immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. AGEs increased Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and promoted VEGFR2 expression. They also increased the expression of sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 6 (SENP6), which de-SUMOylated VEGFR2, and immunofluorescence indicated a reduction in VEGFR2 accumulation in the Golgi and increased VEGFR2 transport from the Golgi to the cell membrane surface via the coatomer protein complex subunit beta 2. VEGFR2 on the cell membrane was linked to VEGF generated by pericytes, triggering the VEGF signaling cascade. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that SENP6 regulates VEGFR2 trafficking from the Golgi to the endothelial cell surface. The SENP6-VEGFR2 pathway plays a critical role in pathological angiogenesis.