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RSS FeedsEntropy, Vol. 25, Pages 244: Covariant Lyapunov Vectors and Finite-Time Normal Modes for Geophysical Fluid Dynamical Systems (Entropy)


29 january 2023 13:38:36

Entropy, Vol. 25, Pages 244: Covariant Lyapunov Vectors and Finite-Time Normal Modes for Geophysical Fluid Dynamical Systems (Entropy)

Dynamical vectors characterizing instability and applicable as ensemble perturbations for prediction with geophysical fluid dynamical models are analysed. The relationships between covariant Lyapunov vectors (CLVs), orthonormal Lyapunov vectors (OLVs), singular vectors (SVs), Floquet vectors and finite-time normal modes (FTNMs) are examined for periodic and aperiodic systems. In the phase-space of FTNM coefficients, SVs are shown to equate with unit norm FTNMs at critical times. In the long-time limit, when SVs approach OLVs, the Oseledec theorem and the relationships between OLVs and CLVs are used to connect CLVs to FTNMs in this phase-space. The covariant properties of both the CLVs, and the FTNMs, together with their phase-space independence, and the norm independence of global Lyapunov exponents and FTNM growth rates, are used to establish their asymptotic convergence. Conditions on the dynamical systems for the validity of these results, particularly ergodicity, boundedness and non-singular FTNM characteristic matrix and propagator, are documented. The findings are deduced for systems with nondegenerate OLVs, and, as well, with degenerate Lyapunov spectrum as is the rule in the presence of waves such as Rossby waves. Efficient numerical methods for the calculation of leading CLVs are proposed. Norm independent finite-time versions of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy production and Kaplan-Yorke dimension are presented.

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