Mitochondria are dynamic organelles regulating metabolism, cell death, and energy production. Therefore, maintaining mitochondrial health is critical for cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy and mitochondrial reorganization via fission and fusion are established mechanisms for ensuring mitochondrial quality. In recent years, mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) have emerged as a novel cellular response. MDVs are shed from the mitochondrial surface and can be directed to lysosomes or peroxisomes for intracellular degradation. MDVs may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, evidence suggests that mitochondrial content is present in extracellular vesicles (EVs). Herein, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on MDV formation and trafficking. Moreover, we review recent findings linking MDV and EV biogenesis and discuss their role in CVD. Finally, we discuss the role of vesicle-mediated mitochondrial transfer and its potential cardioprotective effects.