ZnIn2S4 (ZIS) is widely used in the field of photocatalytic hydrogen production due to its unique photoelectric properties. Nonetheless, the photocatalytic performance of ZIS usually faces problems of poor conductivity and rapid recombination of charge carriers. Heteroatom doping is often regarded as one of the effective strategies for improving the catalytic activity of photocatalysts. Herein, phosphorus (P)-doped ZIS was prepared by hydrothermal method, whose photocatalytic hydrogen production performance and energy band structure were fully studied. The band gap of P-doped ZIS is about 2.51 eV, which is slightly smaller than that of pure ZIS. Moreover, due to the upward shift of its energy band, the reduction ability of P-doped ZIS is enhanced, and P-doped ZIS also exhibits stronger catalytic activity than pure ZIS. The optimized P-doped ZIS exhibits a hydrogen production rate of 1566.6 μmol g−1 h−1, which is 3.8 times that of the pristine ZIS (411.1 μmol g−1 h−1). This work provides a broad platform for the design and synthesis of phosphorus-doped sulfide-based photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.