IJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 9678: Emission and Migration of Nanoscale Particles during Osseointegration and Disintegration of Dental Implants in the Clinic and Experiment and the Influence on Cytokine Production (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
The emission of nanoscale particles from the surfaces of dental implants leads to the cumulative effect of particle complexes in the bone bed and surrounding soft tissues. Aspects of particle migration with the possibility of their involvement in the development of pathological processes of systemic nature remain unexplored. The aim of this work was to study protein production during the interaction of immunocompetent cells with nanoscale metal particles obtained from the surfaces of dental implants in the supernatants. The ability to migrate nanoscale metal particles with possible involvement in the formation of pathological structures, in particular in the formation of gallstones, was also investigated. The following methods were used: microbiological studies, X-ray microtomography, X-ray fluorescence analysis, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and multiplex immunofluorescence analysis. For the first time, titanium nanoparticles in gallstones were identified by X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microscopy with elemental mapping. The multiplex analysis method revealed that the physiological response of the immune system cells, in particular neutrophils, to nanosized metal particles significantly reduced TNF-a production both through direct interaction and through double lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling. For the first time, a significant decrease in TNF-a production was demonstrated when supernatants containing nanoscale metal particles were co-cultured with proinflammatory peritoneal exudate obtained from the peritoneum of the C57Bl/6J inbred mice line for one day.