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RSS FeedsIJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 9689: Functionalization of and through Melanin: Strategies and Bio-Applications (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)

 
 

2 june 2023 14:36:06

 
IJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 9689: Functionalization of and through Melanin: Strategies and Bio-Applications (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
 


A unique feature of nanoparticles for bio-application is the ease of achieving multi-functionality through covalent and non-covalent functionalization. In this way, multiple therapeutic actions, including chemical, photothermal and photodynamic activity, can be combined with different bio-imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance, photoacoustic, and fluorescence imaging, in a theragnostic approach. In this context, melanin-related nanomaterials possess unique features since they are intrinsically biocompatible and, due to their optical and electronic properties, are themselves very efficient photothermal agents, efficient antioxidants, and photoacoustic contrast agents. Moreover, these materials present a unique versatility of functionalization, which makes them ideal for the design of multifunctional platforms for nanomedicine integrating new functions such as drug delivery and controlled release, gene therapy, or contrast ability in magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging. In this review, the most relevant and recent examples of melanin-based multi-functionalized nanosystems are discussed, highlighting the different methods of functionalization and, in particular, distinguishing pre-functionalization and post-functionalization. In the meantime, the properties of melanin coatings employable for the functionalization of a variety of material substrates are also briefly introduced, especially in order to explain the origin of the versatility of melanin functionalization. In the final part, the most relevant critical issues related to melanin functionalization that may arise during the design of multifunctional melanin-like nanoplatforms for nanomedicine and bio-application are listed and discussed.


 
66 viewsCategory: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology
 
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