Land use and land cover (LULC) changes resulting from rapid urbanization are the foremost causes of increases in land surface temperature (LST) in urban areas. Exploring the impact of LULC changes on the spatiotemporal patterns of LST under future climate change scenarios is critical for sustainable urban development. This study aimed to project the LST of Nanjing for 2025 and 2030 under different climate change scenarios using simulated LULC and land coverage indicators. Thermal infrared data from Landsat images were used to derive spatiotemporal patterns of LST in Nanjing from 1990 to 2020. The patch-generating land use simulation (PLUS) model was applied to simulate the LULC of Nanjing for 2025 and 2030 using historical LULC data and spatial driving factors. We simulated the corresponding land coverage indicators using simulated LULC data. We then generated LSTs for 2025 and 2030 under different climate change scenarios by applying regression relationships between LST and land coverage indicators. The results show that the LST of Nanjing has been increasing since 1990, with the mean LST increased from 23.44 °C in 1990 to 25.40 °C in 2020, and the mean LST estimated to reach 26.73 °C in 2030 (SSP585 scenario, integrated scenario of SSP5 and RCP5.8). There were significant differences in the LST under different climate scenarios, with increases in LST gradually decreasing under the SSP126 scenario (integrated scenario of SSP1 and RCP2.6). LST growth was similar to the historical trend under the SSP245 scenario (integrated scenario of SSP2 and RCP4.5), and an extreme increase in LST was observed under the SSP585 scenario. Our results suggest that the increase in impervious surface area is the main reason for the LST increase and urban heat island (UHI) effect. Overall, we proposed a method to project future LST considering land use change effects and provide reasonable LST scenarios for Nanjing, which may be useful for mitigating the UHI effect.