Energies, Vol. 16, Pages 4507: A Bi-Level Optimal Operation Model for Small-Scale Active Distribution Networks Considering the Coupling Fluctuation of Spot Electricity Prices and Renewable Energy Sources (Energies)
As the penetration rate of variable renewable energy such as wind power increases in the power system, the composition and balance of the system also change gradually. The intermittency of renewable energy poses great stability challenges to the traditional centralized generation and load-oriented transmission and distribution methods. Therefore, the Active Distribution Network Operator (ADNO) with distributed installation at the local level has a good application prospect in the new scenario. However, ADNO needs to improve its operational efficiency based on the types of local generation and storage devices and the nature of the market environment. To address this issue, this paper proposes a forecasting method that considers the coupling fluctuations of spot electricity prices and renewable energy, and a bi-level optimization operation method based on the Stackelberg game for optimizing the operation of small-scale ADNO under high wind power penetration rate. Simulation results show that the proposed methods achieve greater positive impact on the operational efficiency of ADNO than conventional methods. In addition, the proposed methods ensure the long-term profitability of ADNO, even with fluctuations in external factors.