IJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 9721: Inhibition of Galectins and the P2X7 Purinergic Receptor as a Therapeutic Approach in the Neurovascular Inflammation of Diabetic Retinopathy (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most frequent microvascular retinal complication of diabetic patients, contributing to loss of vision. Recently, retinal neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration have emerged as key players in DR progression, and therefore, this review examines the neuroinflammatory molecular basis of DR. We focus on four important aspects of retinal neuroinflammation: (i) the exacerbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; (ii) the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome; (iii) the role of galectins; and (iv) the activation of purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Moreover, this review proposes the selective inhibition of galectins and the P2X7R as a potential pharmacological approach to prevent the progression of DR.