This study analyzes the primary factors influencing farmers` awareness of ecosystem services. This study, through questionnaires, conducts research on farmers` awareness of and demand for ecosystem service functions. The research encapsulates 156 households from 21 groups of villagers in the Guangxi Karst Ecological Immigration District in China. The results of the factors influencing farmers` awareness of ecosystem services, analyzed using a regression model, show that: (1) Farmers are concerned with ecosystem service functions that directly benefit them; however, they do not sufficiently understand the ecosystem`s ecological security maintenance or cultural landscape functions; (2) Farmers` awareness of ecosystem service functions is not consistent with their corresponding demand, including the ecosystem`s leisure and entertainment, social security, disaster prevention and water purification services; (3) Education level, land area cultivated by the household, proportion of the household`s income from agriculture and immigration status directly affect farmers` awareness of ecosystem services; (4) Farmers` personal characteristics, family characteristics and subjective attitudes have different effects on the level of ecological service cognition. Understanding farmers` awareness of ecosystem services, and the influencing factors can help policymakers and development managers plan local development and policies, and enable harmonious development of the human-earth system in immigration regions of China.