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RSS FeedsBrain microvascular endothelial cells exhibit lower activation of the alternative complement pathway than glomerular microvascular endothelial cells [Molecular Bases of Disease] (Journal of Biological Chemistry)

 
 

15 may 2018 12:01:41

 
Brain microvascular endothelial cells exhibit lower activation of the alternative complement pathway than glomerular microvascular endothelial cells [Molecular Bases of Disease] (Journal of Biological Chemistry)
 




Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and bone marrow transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) are associated with excessive activation of the alternative complement pathway (AP) and with severe renal, but rarely cerebral, microvascular damage. Here, we compared AP activation and regulation in human glomerular and brain microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs and BMVECs, respectively) unstimulated or stimulated by the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Compared with GMVECs and under both experimental conditions, BMVECs had increased gene expression of the AP-related genes C3, CFB, and C5 and decreased expression of CFD. This was associated with increased expression in BMVECs (relative to GMVECs) of the genes for surface and soluble regulatory molecules (CD46, THBD, CD55, CFI, and CFH) suppressing formation of the AP C3 and C5 convertases. Of note, unlike GMVECs, BMVECs generated extremely low levels of C3a and C5a and displayed decreased activation of the AP (as measured by a lower percentage of Ba generation than GMVECs). Moreover, BMVECs exhibited increased function of CD141, mediating activation of the natural anticoagulant protein C, compared with GMVECs. We also found that the C3a receptor (C3aR) is present on both cell types and that TNF greatly increases C3AR1 expression in GMVECs, but only slightly in BMVECs. Higher AP activation and C3a generation in GMVECs than in BMVECs, coupled with an increase in C3aR production in TNF-stimulated GMVECs, provides a possible explanation for the predominance of renal damage, and the absence of cerebral injury, in individuals with episodes of aHUS and TA-TMA.


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24 viewsCategory: Biochemistry
 
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