With the accelerating urbanization process, the population increasingly concentrates in urban areas. In view of the huge population in China and a series of problems in the process of rapid urbanization, there are no unified measures for characterizing the population pattern. This study explores the distribution pattern of the Chinese population and proposes a spatial distribution structure of population using GIS (Geographic Information System) analysis. The main findings are as follows: (1) In 2015, the distribution of population density in China presents a pattern of high in the southeast and low in the northwest based on the county-level administrative regions. The population main lives in the southeast of China based on the “Hu Huanyong Line”. (2) There is a great difference of the spatial correlation between land area, population and GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in China. The economic concentration in China is higher than the population concentration. In the areas where population and GDP are aggregated, per capita GDP is higher. (3) Based on the areas with highly aggregated population and GDP, the spatial distribution structure of population of “1 + 4 + 11” for China’s urbanization is put forward, namely, one national-level aggregated area of population and GDP, 4 regional-level aggregated areas of population and GDP, and 11 local regionally aggregated areas of population and GDP. This spatial structure represents an attempt to explore the direction of China’s urbanization, and it can be used to optimize the spatial development pattern and provide scientific guidance for the future urbanization plan.