This study examines the improvements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance achieved when silver nanodendritic structures are coated with various graphene-based materials, namely graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The tests are performed on our unique SERS-active substrates, prepared on the surface of planar microelectrode chips using an electric field-guided Ag nanoparticle assembly process. The graphene-based materials are introduced into the substrate by means of an in-house spray-coating technique. The SERS enhancement effect of each coating is examined as a function of spray nozzle passes (N) and optimal values are identified for each coating type. The enhancements found for GO, rGO, and GNP (6–9 graphene layers thick) coatings are 2.3 (N = 25), 2.5 (N = 5), and 1.6 (N = 1), respectively. Additionally, in comparison with their uncoated counterparts, substrates coated with rGO (N = 5) are shown to enhance the intensity of the methamphetamine (5 ppb) spectrum in artificial saliva by approximately 3-fold. Overall, it can be concluded that the introduction of GO or rGO to the SERS substrate using spray-coating, a simple and also scalable method, can produce substantial SERS performance enhancement.