An extended robot–world and hand–eye calibration method is proposed in this paper to evaluate the transformation relationship between the camera and robot device. This approach could be performed for mobile or medical robotics applications, where precise, expensive, or unsterile calibration objects, or enough movement space, cannot be made available at the work site. Firstly, a mathematical model is established to formulate the robot-gripper-to-camera rigid transformation and robot-base-to-world rigid transformation using the Kronecker product. Subsequently, a sparse bundle adjustment is introduced for the optimization of robot–world and hand–eye calibration, as well as reconstruction results. Finally, a validation experiment including two kinds of real data sets is designed to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed approach. The translation relative error of rigid transformation is less than 8/10,000 by a Denso robot in a movement range of 1.3 m × 1.3 m × 1.2 m. The distance measurement mean error after three-dimensional reconstruction is 0.13 mm.