In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have received increasing attention for their important role in tumor initiation and progression. MiRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of several oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. MiR-19a, a component of the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster, has been reported to be highly expressed only in anaplastic thyroid cancer, the most undifferentiated, aggressive and lethal form of thyroid neoplasia. In this work, we evaluated the putative contribution of miR-19a in de-differentiation and aggressiveness of thyroid tumors. To this aim, we induced miR-19a expression in the well-differentiated follicular thyroid cancer cell line and evaluated proliferation, apoptosis and gene expression profile of cancer cells. Our results showed that miR-19a overexpression stimulates cell proliferation and alters the expression profile of genes related to thyroid cell differentiation and aggressiveness. These findings not only suggest that miR-19a has a possible involvement in de-differentiation and malignancy, but also that it could represent an important prognostic indicator and a good therapeutic target for the most aggressive thyroid cancer.