Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is a bacterial pathogen causing American foulbrood (AFB), the most serious disease of honeybee larvae. The food of young larvae could play an important role in the resistance of larvae against AFB. It contains antibacterial substances produced by honeybees that may inhibit the propagation of the pathogen in larval midguts. In this study, we identified and investigated the antibacterial effects of one of these substances, trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), against P. larvae strains including all Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) genotypes. Its inhibitory activities were studied by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). It was found that 10-HDA efficacy increases substantially with decreasing pH; up to 12-fold differences in efficacy were observed between pH = 5.5 and pH = 7.2. P. larvae strains showed different susceptibility to 10-HDA; up to 2.97-fold differences existed among various strains with environmentally important ERIC I and ERIC II genotypes. Germinating spores of the pathogen were generally more susceptible to 10-HDA than vegetative cells. Our findings suggest that 10-HDA could play significant role in conferring antipathogenic activity to larval food in the midguts of young larvae and contribute to the resistance of individual larvae to P. larvae.