Numerous proteins are involved in the multiple pathways of the DNA damage response network and play a key role to protect the genome from the wide variety of damages that can occur to DNA. An example of this is the structure-specific endonuclease ERCC1-XPF. This heterodimeric complex is in particular involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), but also in double strand break repair and interstrand cross-link repair pathways. Here we review the function of ERCC1-XPF in various DNA repair pathways and discuss human disorders associated with ERCC1-XPF deficiency. We also overview our molecular and structural understanding of XPF-ERCC1.