Omega (n)-3 fatty acids are vital to neonatal maturation, and recent investigations reveal n-3 fatty acids serve as substrates for the biosynthesis of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) that have anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects. The role SPM play in the protection against negative maternal-fetal health outcomes is unclear, and there are no current biomarkers of n-3 fatty acid sufficiency. We sought to ascertain the relationships between n-3 fatty acid intake, SPM levels, and maternal-fetal health outcomes. We obtained n-3 fatty acid intake information from 136 mothers admitted for delivery using a food frequency questionnaire and measured docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-derived SPMs resolvin D1 (RvD1) and RvD2 in maternal and cord plasma. We found significantly elevated SPM in maternal versus cord plasma, and increased SPM levels were associated with at-risk outcomes. We also identified that increased DHA intake was associated with elevated maternal plasma RvD1 (p = 0.03; R2 = 0.18) and RvD2 (p = 0.04; R2 = 0.20) in the setting of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. These findings indicate that increased n-3 fatty acid intake may provide increased substrate for the production of SPM during high-risk pregnancy/delivery conditions, and that increased maternal plasma SPM could serve as a biomarker for negative neonatal outcomes.