IJMS, Vol. 20, Pages 261: New Oxidovanadium(IV) Coordination Complex Containing 2-Methylnitrilotriacetate Ligands Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Autophagy in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)
Pancreatic cancer is characterized by one of the lowest five-year survival rates. In search for new treatments, some studies explored several metal complexes as potential anticancer drugs. Therefore, we investigated three newly synthesized oxidovanadium(IV) complexes with 2-methylnitrilotriacetate (bcma3-), N-(2-carbamoylethyl)iminodiacetate (ceida3-) and N-(phosphonomethyl)-iminodiacetate (pmida4-) ligands as potential anticancer compounds using pancreatic cancer cell lines. We measured: Cytotoxicity using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red (NR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay; antiproliferative activity by bromodeoxyuridine BrdU assay; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry; protein level by Western blot and cellular morphology by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results showed that these oxidovanadium(IV) complexes were cytotoxic on pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1 and MIA PaCa2), but not on non-tumor human immortalized pancreas duct epithelial cells (hTERT-HPNE) over the concentration range of 10-25 ?M, following 48 h incubation. Furthermore, molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity of [4-NH2-2-Me(Q)H][VO(bcma)(H2O)]2H2O (T1) were dependent on antiproliterative activity, increased ROS generation, cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase with simultaneous triggering of the p53/p21 pathway, binucleation, and induction of autophagy. Our study indicates that oxidovanadium(IV) coordination complexes containing 2-methylnitrilotriacetate ligand are good candidates for preclinical development of novel anticancer drugs targeting pancreatic cancer.