Several studies have indicated that diet and exercise may modulate the gut microbiota in obese subjects. Both interventions were shown to alter the microbiota orthogonally. However, this relationship has not been fully explored. This study analyzed the effects of low-to-moderate aerobic training on the fecal microbiota of mice subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, 40 male mice (C57Bl/6) were divided into two groups with standard diet (SD; 12.4% lipid) and HFD (60.3% lipid) for four months. These groups were divided into four, named SD control, HF control, SD trained and HF trained. All animals were submitted to an incremental test to estimate low-to-moderate maximum speed. Training consisted of 30 minĚday-1, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. The HFD increased the body weight (p < 0.0001) and adiposity index (p < 0.05). HFD also negatively influenced performance in exercise training. Moreover, the diversity of gut microbiota was reduced by the HFD in all groups. A low-to-moderate exercise was ineffective in modulating the gut microbiota composition in mice subjected to HFD. These findings suggest that two months of low-to-moderate exercise does not achieve a preponderant modulatory effect on shaping microbiota when submitted to the high-fat diet.