Transglutaminase (TGase) is a regulator of posttranslational modification of protein that provides physiological protection against diverse environmental stresses in plants. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of TGase-mediated salt tolerance remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the transcription of cucumber TGase (CsTGase) was induced in response to light and during leaf development, and the CsTGase protein was expressed in the chloroplast and the cell wall. The overexpression of the CsTGase gene effectively ameliorated salt-induced photoinhibition in tobacco plants, increased the levels of chloroplast polyamines (PAs) and enhanced the abundance of D1 and D2 proteins. TGase also induced the expression of photosynthesis related genes and remodeling of thylakoids under normal conditions. However, salt stress treatment reduced the photosynthesis rate, PSII and PSI related genes expression, D1 and D2 proteins in wild-type (WT) plants, while these effects were alleviated in CsTGase overexpression plants. Taken together, our results indicate that TGase-dependent PA signaling protects the proteins of thylakoids, which plays a critical role in plant response to salt stress. Thus, overexpression of TGase may be an effective strategy for enhancing resistance to salt stress of salt-sensitive crops in agricultural production.