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RSS FeedsEnergies, Vol. 12, Pages 1068: Development of Nanofluids for Perdurability in Viscosity Reduction of Extra-Heavy Oils (Energies)

 
 

20 march 2019 08:00:25

 
Energies, Vol. 12, Pages 1068: Development of Nanofluids for Perdurability in Viscosity Reduction of Extra-Heavy Oils (Energies)
 




The primary objective of this study is the development of nanofluids based on different diluent/dispersant ratios (DDR) for extra-heavy oil (EHO) viscosity reduction and its perdurability over time. Different diluents such as xylene, diesel, n-pentane, and n-heptane were evaluated for the formulation of the carrier fluid. Instability of asphaltenes was assessed for all diluents through colloidal instability index (CII) and Oliensis tests. Rheology measurements and hysteresis loop tests were performed using a rotational rheometer at 30 °C. The CII values for the alkanes type diluents were around 0.57, results that were corroborated with the Oliensis tests as asphaltenes precipitation was observed with the use of these diluents. This data was related to the viscosity reduction degree (VRD) reported for the different diluents. With the use of the alkanes, the VRD does not surpass the 60%, while with the use of xylene a VRD of approximately 85% was achieved. Dimethylformamide was used as a dispersant of the nanoparticles and had a similar VRD than that for xylene (87%). Subsequent experiments were performed varying the DDR (xylene/dimethylformamide) for different dosages up to 7 vol % determining that a DDR = 0.2 and a dosage of 5 vol % was appropriated for enhancing EHO VRD, obtaining a final value of 89%. Different SiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated in the viscosity reduction tests reporting the best results using 9 nm nanoparticles that were then included at 1000 mg·L−1 in the carrier fluid, increasing the VRD up to 4% and enhancing the perdurability based on the rheological hysteresis and the viscosity measurements for 30 days. Results showed a viscosity increase of 20 and 80% for the crude oil with the nanofluid and the carrier fluid after 30 days, respectively. The nanoparticles have a synergistic effect in the viscosity reduction and the inhibition of the viscoelastic network re-organization (perdurability) after treatment application which was also observed in the rheological modeling carried out with Cross and Carreau models as the reported characteristic relaxation time was increased almost a 20%. Moreover, the Vipulanandan rheological model denotes a higher maximum stress value reached by the EHO with the addition of nanofluids which is derived from the EHO internal structure rearrangement caused by the asphaltenes adsorption phenomenon.


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57 viewsCategory: Biophysics, Biotechnology, Physics
 
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