In this work, a novel adsorbent attapulgite/graphene oxide magnetic composite (ATP/Fe3O4/GO) was synthesized for removing propranolol (PRO) from aqueous water. The factors affecting the PRO adsorption process onto ATP/Fe3O4/GO including pH, ionic strength, sorbent dosage, and humic acid were systematically investigated by batch experiments. Meanwhile, magnetic attapulgite (ATP/Fe3O4) and magnetic graphene oxide (GO/Fe3O4) were prepared for the comparison of the adsorption performance for PRO. The structural and surface characteristics of the resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the adsorption rate of PRO onto ATP/Fe3O4/GO was up to 99%, faster and higher than that of other adsorbents involved at neutral pH. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics were better fitted with pseudo-first-order kinetic model than the second-order kinetic model. The adsorption data were fitted well with the Freundlich isotherm equations, implying that the adsorption process was heterogeneous. The adsorption reaction was endothermic and spontaneous according to the thermodynamic parameters. All results indicated that ATP/Fe3O4/GO was a promising adsorbent for removing PRO from water.