Several studies have shown that near-infrared imaging has great potential for the detection of dental caries lesions. A miniature scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths was developed and used in this study to test whether the device could be used to discriminate demineralized enamel from sound enamel. Varying depths of artificial enamel caries lesions were prepared on 20 bovine blocks with smooth enamel surfaces. Samples were imaged with a SFE operating in the reflectance mode at 1310-nm and 1460-nm in both wet and dry conditions. The measurements acquired by the SFE operating at 1460-nm show significant difference between the sound and the demineralized enamel. There was a moderate positive correlation between the SFE measurements and micro-CT measurements, and the NIR SFE was able to detect the presence of demineralization with high sensitivity (0.96) and specificity (0.85). This study demonstrates that the NIR SFE can be used to detect early demineralization from sound enamel. In addition, the NIR SFE can differentiate varying severities of demineralization. With its very small form factor and maneuverability, the NIR SFE should allow clinicians to easily image teeth from multiple viewing angles in real-time.