Based on electromagnetic theory, metallurgical characteristics can be detected by eddy current nondestructive testing technology. In this study, the relationship between the surface microstructure and the eddy current output of martensitic stainless steel AISI 410 was studied using this technology at different quenching temperatures. The mechanical properties include material hardness, microstructure types and microstructural changes after thermal treatment was evaluated. Using Vickers hardness as the surface hardness index of AISI 410 steel, the relationship between eddy current output signal, in terms of impedance and inductance, and sample surface hardness was studied and the effects of different quenching temperatures on the steel’s surface hardness was examined. In addition, the change of microstructure types of AISI 410 steel after thermal treatment was detected by the eddy current nondestructive testing method, and the results were verified by metallographic microscopy.