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RSS FeedsMitochondrial localization, import, and mitochondrial function of the androgen receptor [Gene Regulation] (Journal of Biological Chemistry)

 
 

19 april 2019 14:01:32

 
Mitochondrial localization, import, and mitochondrial function of the androgen receptor [Gene Regulation] (Journal of Biological Chemistry)
 




Nuclear localization of androgen receptor (AR) directs transcriptional regulation of a host of genes, referred to as genomic signaling. Additionally, nonnuclear or nongenomic activities of the AR have long been described, but understanding of these activities remains elusive. Here, we report that AR is imported into and localizes to mitochondria and has a novel role in regulating multiple mitochondrial processes. Employing complementary experimental approaches of AR knockdown in AR-expressing cells and ectopic AR expression in AR-deficient cells, we demonstrate an inverse relationship between AR expression and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM), a regulator of mtDNA content. We show that AR localizes to mitochondria in prostate tissues and cell lines and is imported into mitochondria in vitro. We also found that AR contains a 36-amino-acid-long mitochondrial localization sequence (MLS) capable of targeting a passenger protein (GFP) to the mitochondria and that deletion of the MLS abolishes the import of AR into the mitochondria. Ectopic AR expression reduced the expression of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits. Interestingly, AR also controlled translation of mtDNA-encoded genes by regulating expression of multiple nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. Consistent with these observations, OXPHOS supercomplexes were destabilized, and OXPHOS enzymatic activities were reduced in AR-expressing cells and restored upon AR knockdown. Moreover, mitochondrial impairment induced AR expression and increased its translocation into mitochondria. We conclude that AR localizes to mitochondria, where it controls multiple mitochondrial functions and mitonuclear communication. Our studies also suggest that mitochondria are novel players in nongenomic activities of AR.


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35 viewsCategory: Biochemistry
 
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