High-resolution structure of RGS17 suggests a role for Ca2+ in promoting the GTPase-activating protein activity by RZ subfamily members [Protein Structure and Folding] (Journal of Biological Chemistry)
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling through their ability to act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for activated G? subunits. Members of the RZ subfamily of RGS proteins bind to activated G?o, G?z, and G?i1-3 proteins in the nervous system and thereby inhibit downstream pathways, including those involved in Ca2+-dependent signaling. In contrast to other RGS proteins, little is known about RZ subfamily structure and regulation. Herein, we present the 1.5-Å crystal structure of RGS17, the most complete and highest-resolution structure of an RZ subfamily member to date. RGS17 cocrystallized with Ca2+ bound to conserved positions on the predicted G?-binding surface of the protein. Using NMR chemical shift perturbations, we confirmed that Ca2+ binds in solution to the same site. Furthermore, RGS17 had greater than 55-fold higher affinity for Ca2+ than for Mg2+. Finally, we found that Ca2+ promotes interactions between RGS17 and activated G? and decreases the Km for GTP hydrolysis, potentially by altering the binding mechanism between these proteins. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ca2+ positively regulates RGS17, which may represent a general mechanism by which increased Ca2+ concentration promotes the GAP activity of the RZ subfamily, leading to RZ-mediated inhibition of Ca2+ signaling.