For many years, different probing techniques have mainly relied on antibodies for molecular recognition. However, with the discovery of aptamers, this has changed. The science community is currently considering using aptamers in molecular targeting studies because of the many potential advantages they have over traditional antibodies. Some of these possible advantages are their specificity, higher binding affinity, better target discrimination, minimized batch-to-batch variation, and reduced side effects. Overall, these characteristics of aptamers have attracted scholars to use them as molecular probes in place of antibodies, with some aptamer-based targeting products being now available in the market. The present review is aimed at discussing the potential of aptamers as probes in molecular biology and in super-resolution microscopy.