Tissue and cell damage caused by ionizing radiation is often highly genotoxic. The swift repair of DNA damage is crucial for the maintenance of genomic stability and normal cell fitness. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes in cells. However, the exact function of lncRNAs in radiation-induced DNA damage has yet to be elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the potential role of lncRNAs in radiation-induced DNA damage. We examined the expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs in 293T cells with or without 8 Gy irradiation using high-throughput RNA sequencing. We then performed comprehensive transcriptomic and bioinformatic analyses of these sequencing results. A total of 18,990 lncRNAs and 16,080 mRNAs were detected in all samples. At 24 h post irradiation, 49 lncRNAs and 323 mRNAs were differentially expressed between the irradiation group and the control group. qRT-PCR was used to verify the altered expression of six lncRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses indicated that the predicted genes were mainly involved in the histone mRNA metabolic process and Wnt signaling pathways. This study may provide novel insights for the study of lncRNAs in radiation-induced DNA damage.