In China, the electricity load is concentrated in the east, but low-rank coal resources are concentrated in the west. To solve this contradiction, in this study, three cases for energy transmission about power system with and without solar energy were studied by life cycle assessment (LCA). Case 1 directly combusts low-rank coal to generate electricity in western China and transmits it to eastern China by grid. Cases 2 and 3 upgrade low-rank coal and transport it to eastern China for power generation. With the evaluating indicators and various stages of LCA, the impact of each case on the environment was compared clearly. The results show that over 90% of the pollutant emission comes from coal combustion throughout the life cycle. The pollutant emission of upgraded coal transportation is less than 5%. With low-rank coal upgrading then combusting, the total emission is less than that of direct combustion. In particular, with solar energy added, the emission of combustion can be further reduced. On the bases of LCA, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to establish the connection of these four evaluation indicators to comprehensively evaluate the performance of the three cases through the objective function of AHP, which provided guidance for the energy transmission and utilization in the eastern and western China. Finally, sensitive analysis shows the main major factors affecting system performance on the system. The results show that the Case 3, which integrates with solar energy, performs best in the whole life scale.