Marine algae have gained much importance in the development of nutraceutical products due to their high content of bioactive compounds. In this work, we investigated the activity of Padina pavonica with the aim to demonstrate the pro-osteogenic ability of its extract on human primary osteoblast (HOb). Our data indicated that the acetonic extract of P. pavonica (EPP) is a safe product as it did not show any effect on osteoblast viability. At the same time, EPP showed to possess a beneficial effect on HOb functionality, triggering their differentiation and mineralization abilities. In particular EPP enhanced the expression of the earlier differentiation stage markers: a 5.4-fold increase in collagen type I alpha 1 chain (COL1A1), and a 2.3-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), as well as those involved in the late differentiation stage: a 3.7-fold increase in osteocalcin (BGLAP) expression and a 2.8-fold in osteoprotegerin (TNFRSF11B). These findings were corroborated by the enhancement in ALPL enzymatic activity (1.7-fold increase) and by the reduction of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio (0.6-fold decrease). Moreover, EPP demonstrated the capacity to enhance the bone nodules formation by 3.2-fold in 4 weeks treated HOb. Therefore, EPP showed a significant capability of promoting osteoblast phenotype. Given its positive effect on bone homeostasis, EPP could be used as a useful nutraceutical product that, in addition to a healthy lifestyle and diet, can be able to contrast and prevent bone diseases, especially those connected with ageing, such as osteoporosis (OP).