Seed number per capsule (SNC) is a major factor influencing seed yield and is an important trait with complex gene interaction effects. We first performed genetic analysis, gene cloning, and molecular mechanism study for an EMS-induced sesame mutant cs1 with fewer SNC and shorter capsule length (CL). The mutant traits were due to the pleiotropism of a regressive gene (Sics1). Capsule hormone determination showed that five out of 12 hormones, including auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), had significantly different levels between wild type (WT) and mutant type (MT). KEGG pathway analysis showed that plant hormone signal transduction, especially the auxin signal transduction pathway, was the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathway. After the cross-population association and regional genome screening, we found that three homozygous loci were retained in cs1. Further analysis of these three loci resulted in the identification of SiCRC as the candidate gene for cs1. SiCRC consists of seven exons and six introns encoding 163 amino acids. The SiCRC in cs1 showed a point mutation at intron 5 and exon 6 junction, resulting in the splice site being frame-shifted eight nucleotides further downstream, causing incorrect splicing. Taken together, we assumed the SNP mutation in SiCRC disrupted the function of the transcription factor, which might act downstream of the CRC-auxin signal transduction pathway, resulting in a shorter CL and less SNC mutation of cs1 in sesame. Our results highlight the molecular framework underlying the transcription factor CRC-mediated role of auxin transduction in SNC and CL development.