Induction motors face various stresses under operating conditions leading to some failure modes. Hence, health monitoring for motors becomes essential. In this paper, we introduce an effective framework for fault diagnosis of 3-phase induction motors. The proposed framework mainly consists of two parts. The first part explains the preprocessing method, in which the time-series data signals are converted into two-dimensional (2D) images. The preprocessing method generates recurrence plots (RP), which represent the transformation of time-series data such as 3-phase current signals into 2D texture images. The second part of the paper explains how the proposed convolutional neural network (CNN) extracts the robust features to diagnose the induction motor’s fault conditions by classifying the images. The generated RP images are considered as input for the proposed CNN in the texture image recognition task. The proposed framework is tested on the dataset collected from different 3-phase induction motors working with different failure modes. The experimental results of the proposed framework show its competitive performance over traditional methodologies and other machine learning methods.