This paper proposed an optimal spectral resolution for diagnosing cadmium-lead (Cd-Pb) cross contamination with different pollution levels based on the hyperspectral reflectance of rice canopy. Feature bands were sequentially selected by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA2) and random forests from the high-dimensional hyperspectral data after preprocessing. Then Support Vector Machine (SVM) was applied to diagnose the pollution levels using different feature bands combination with different spectral resolutions and cross validation was conducted to evaluate the distinguishing accuracies. Finally, the optimal spectral resolution could be determined by comparing the diagnosing accuracies of the optimal feature bands combination in each spectral resolution. In the experiments, the hyperspectral reflectance data of rice canopy with ten different spectral resolutions was captured, covering 16 pretreatments of Cd and Pb pollution. The experimental results showed the optimal spectral resolution was 9 nm with the highest average accuracy of 0.71 and relatively standard deviation of 0.07 for diagnosing the categories and levels of Cd-Pb cross contamination. The useful exploration provided an evidence for optimal spectral resolution selection to reduce the cost of heavy metal pollution diagnose.