Liposomal nanotechnology has a great potential to overcome the current major problems of chemotherapy. However, the lack of penetrability and targetability retards the successful delivery of liposomal carriers. Previously, we showed that BR2 peptide modification endowed cantharidin-loaded liposomes with intracellular penetration that enhanced the drug cytotoxic effects. Here, we aimed to improve the targeting delivery of drugs into cancer cells via highly expressed carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) receptors by modifying our previous catharidin-loaded BR2-liposomes with anti-CA IX antibody. A higher cellular uptake of dual-functional liposomes (DF-Lp) than other treatments was observed. Induction of CA IX over-expressing resulted in a higher cellular binding of DF-Lp; subsequently, blocking with excess antibodies resulted in a decreased cancer-cell association, indicating a specific targeting property of our liposomes towards CA IX expressed cells. After 3h tracking, most of the liposomes were located around the nucleus which confirmed the involvement of targeting intracellular delivery. Cantharidin loaded DF-Lp exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro and was most effective in controlling tumor growth in vivo in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model compared to other groups. Collectively, our results presented the advantage of the BR2 peptide and CA IX antibody combination to elevate the therapeutic potential of cantharidin loaded DF-liposomes.