The process of transformation of the Polish economy, traditionally based on coal, into an economy that uses low-carbon technologies, faces a problem associated with the diversification of energy sources, especially in rural areas. The scale of the use of conventional energy carriers in households located in rural areas in Poland has a very negative impact on the natural environment. The aim of the paper is to indicate possibilities of reducing low-altitude emissions (with emitters not exceeding 40 m in height) in rural areas in Poland, through the development of renewable energy sources. This paper provides an overview of the specific character of rural areas in Poland and the development challenges faced in these areas in the investigated scope. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy efficiency, it is necessary to dynamize pro-ecological activities in agriculture and in rural areas, including the development of agricultural biogas plants, wind and photovoltaic farms. The use of renewable energy sources can be an important factor in the development and sustainable growth of rural areas in Poland.