Manipulation of the immune response is a game changer in lung cancer treatment, revolutionizing management. PD1 and CTLA4 are dynamically expressed on different T cell subsets that can either disrupt or sustain tumor growth. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against PD1/PDL1 and CTLA4 have shown that inhibitory signals can be impaired, blocking T cell activation and function. MoAbs, used as both single-agents or in combination with standard therapy for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), have exhibited advantages in terms of overall survival and response rate; nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab and more recently, durvalumab, have already been approved for lung cancer treatment and more compounds are in the pipeline. A better understanding of signaling elicited by these antibodies on T cell subsets, as well as identification of biological determinants of sensitivity, resistance and correlates of efficacy, will help to define the mechanisms of antitumor responses. In addition, the relevance of T regulatory cells (Treg) involved in immune responses in cancer is attracting increasing interest. A major challenge for future research is to understand why a durable response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) occurs only in subsets of patients and the mechanisms of resistance after an initial response. This review will explore current understanding and future direction of research on ICI treatment in lung cancer and the impact of tumor immune microenvironment n influencing clinical responses.