Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease mainly affecting women over 50 years old and it represents a serious public health problem because of the high socioeconomic burden. This disease is characterized by deterioration of bone microarchitecture, low bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of fragility fractures. This study aimed to identify serum useful proteins as biomarkers for the diagnosis and/or prognosis of osteoporosis and fracture risk. We collected 446 serum samples from postmenopausal women aged ≥45 years old. Based on the BMD measurement, we classified the participants into three groups: osteoporotic, osteopenic, and normal. In an initial discovery stage, we conducted a proteomic approach using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The peptides into the spots of interest were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to validate the proteins of interest. We identified 27 spots of interest when comparing low BMD versus normal BMD postmenopausal women. Based on their relevance in bone metabolism, we analyzed three proteins: ceruloplasmin (CP), gelsolin (GSN), and vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP). Our results demonstrated that low serum VDBP levels correlate with low BMD (osteopenic and osteoporotic). Therefore, VDBP could be considered as a novel, potential, and non-invasive biomarker for the early detection of osteoporosis.