The aroma quality of citrus fruit is determined by volatile compounds, which bring about different notes to allow discrimination among different citrus species. However, the volatiles with various aromatic traits specific to different citrus species have not been identified. In this study, volatile profiles in the fruit peels of four citrus species collected from our previous studies were subjected to various analyses to mine volatile biomarkers. Principal component analysis results indicated that different citrus species could almost completely be separated. Thirty volatiles were identified as potential biomarkers in discriminating loose-skin mandarin, sweet orange, pomelo, and lemon, while 17 were identified as effective biomarkers in discriminating clementine mandarins from the other loose-skin mandarins and sweet oranges. Finally, 30 citrus germplasms were used to verify the classification based on β-elemene, valencene, nootkatone, and limettin as biomarkers. The accuracy values were 90.0%, 96.7%, 96.7%, and 100%, respectively. This research may provide a novel and effective alternative approach to identifying citrus genetic resources.